What is the recommended depth of compressions and rate in CPR?

Recommended depth of compressions and rate in CPR

One thing a lot of people getting CPR training wonder is what the CPR Compression Rate is. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique is highly important, and it is advised that everyone learn the basics of it. In cases of cardiac arrest, immediate CPR can increase the chances of survival.

However, CPR can’t be performed the same way on all people, meaning it is different for different ages. What’s more, a person’s size significantly impacts how CPR is performed. For example, the CPR compressions for babies and children differ from those for the average adult.

In this article, you can learn more about CPR, how it works and what is the recommended depth of compressions and rate in CPR.

What Is CPR and What Is The Recommended Depth of Compressions and Rate in CPR?

CPR is a life-saving procedure that can be used if someone goes into cardiac arrest, i.e., their heart stops, so it cannot pump blood to the body organs, including the lungs and brain. Without cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the person can die in a few minutes.

The reason why this technique is used in these moments is that CPR mimics the heart’s pumping action. By using chest compressions, you continue the circulation of blood.

Approximately 90% of people who suffer a cardiac arrest outside of a hospital die. However, CPR can help save lives and beat those odds. It can double or even triple people’s chances of survival if someone performs within the first minutes of cardiac arrest.

It is important to note that cardiac arrest and heart attack are different. Heart attacks occur when blood flow to the heart is interrupted. People having a heart attack do not require CPR, but they must be taken to the hospital as soon as possible. However, heart attacks do increase the risk of cardiac arrest.

How Can You Perform CPR With the Right CPR Compression Rate?

High-quality CPR determines whether a patient will survive cardiac arrest. But, delivering good chest compressions is frequently inconsistent, tiring, and technically challenging. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests several things:

      • Begin the CPR with rapid and hard chest compressions. This goes for both first responders and untrained people for hands-only CPR.

      • Minimize the interruptions in chest compressions.

      • Change compressions every 2 minutes or less.

      • If you’re experienced in CPR, check for a pulse and breathing before you start giving CPR – a combination of chest compressions and rescue breathing.

    You could still perform hands-on CPR if you are not CPR trained. Push in the chest center fast and hard at a rate of 100-120 pushes per minute. Allow the chest to return to its normal position after every push. You are not required to attempt mouth-to-mouth breathing in these cases.

    The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests timing the pushes to the rhythm of the well-known song “Stayin’ Alive.” Then, continue with chest compressions until paramedics arrive or someone with formal CPR training comes.

    If you are trained in CPR, start the compressions if you cannot hear breathing or pulse within 10 seconds. Begin CPR with 30 compressions followed by two rescue breaths. However, if you are certified in CPR but are not sure how well you will do, simply perform the above mentioned 100-120 per minute pushes.

    How Deep Should CPR Compression Rate Be?

    In CPR, the depth of chest compressions is critical. Previous research has shown that increased chest compression depth is connected with improved hospital discharge survival.

    The AHA studied out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated by emergency medical services. They computed adjusted odds ratios for hospital discharge survival, one-day survival, and return of circulation. The results from the study were that increased chest compression depth is associated with better survival.

    Adult Compression Depth

    The updated AHA CPR guidelines of 2015 state that the compression depth has increased from 2 to 2.4 inches. This is the recommended depth for adults, regardless of whether the patient is male or female.

    Prior to 2015, the recommended depth was greater. However, according to the AHA, compressions delivered beyond 2.4 inches can increase the risk of resuscitation-related injury. To ensure that the compression and decompression phases last the same amount of time, the CPR must be performed at the optimal chest compression rate of 100-120 per minute.

    It is worth noting that women are less likely to get CPR – only 39% of women received CPR from bystanders compared to 45% of men. This is because rescuers fear accusations of sexual assault, inappropriate touching, or injuring them.

    In addition, women are thought to have less heart disease and exaggerated incidents. This has led to a drop in heart disease awareness in younger women and women of color – the rate went from 65% in 2009 to 44% in 2019.

    Child Compression Depth

    Place the hand heel on the child’s chest center, with the other hand on top, fingers interlaced, and push down two inches, or about one-third of the chest diameter. The depth of compressions is critical here.

    Place the shoulders over your hands, and lock the elbows. You should push down quickly and strongly at a rate of 100-120 per minute. If you cannot reach a depth of two inches with one hand, you will need to use two. You can also give two breaths after every 30 compressions.

    Infant Compression Depth

    In contrast to adult patients, where chest compressions are the most important performance element for survival, ventilation is the most crucial performance element in neonatal and pediatric resuscitation.

    When giving CPR to an infant, you need to push 1.5 inches with two fingers on the infant’s breastbone. The correct depth is one-third of the chest wall’s anteroposterior diameter. It is best to use your thumbs.

    The quality and depth of compressions are critical. Use the hand heel if you cannot reach 1.5 inches with the tips of two thumbs. Giving two rescue breaths after 30 chest compressions applies to infants as well. Continue the cycles until the infant begins to recover or a healthcare professional arrives.

    How Do You Know If the CPR Compression Rate Your Doing is Enough?

    Excessive CPR compressions can break the patients’ ribs and cause internal injuries. On the other hand, too gentle compressions will not pump blood to dying organs, resulting in death.

    To achieve optimal CPR compression depth, you need a lot of practice. Keep in mind that the amount of force required to pump blood through the body adequately is greater than you may think. Aside from working in a healthcare setting, you can always take CPR courses and ensure you know the right way to help people with this technique.

    Wrapping Up What We Learned About CPR Compression Rate

    When wondering, “What is the recommended depth of compressions and rate in CPR?” the first thing you need to assess is the age and build of the person you will give CPR to. Note that the compression strength and depth are not the same for all people – adults require more force than infants or babies.

    To perform CPR and save someone’s life, it’s best to have a formal education. However, this is not to say that you can’t do with training or special certification. The key element in a situation when someone goes into cardiac arrest is not to panic but approach the situation with calmness and rationality.
    We strongly recommend that you take a first aid course. Knowing about first aid is essential because it makes dealing with emergencies more manageable. Check online for CPR classes that provide CPR certification so you can always be prepared.